446 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. For a while Baha Ulla acted nominally on the instructions of the Subh-i-Ezel, but about 1866 he proclaimed himself as "Him whom God shall manifest" and called upon his brother to acknowledge his supreme authority. There was a desperate conflict between the two parties, but Baha Ulla finally triumphed, only a faithful few clinging to his brother. In 1868 the Turkish Government decided to separate the rivals. Subh-i-Ezel was sent to Cyprus, where he died recently at a great age.1 Baha Ulla was interned at Acre, and, dying in 1892, was succeeded by his son. Abbas Effendi, although differences arose between the new leader and his younger brother, Mirza Mohamed All. The present head of the religion, who is generally known as Abdul Baha, or "The Slave of the Splendour," has created a much wider sphere for his activities : he preaches peace and goodwill among men in Europe and America and is more concerned with ethical than with metaphysical questions. Babi Plots and Risings^ 1850-1852.— In 1850 the followers of the Bab attempted to seize the fanatical city of Yezd,2 but failed and fled to Kerman. A conspiracy was also formed to assassinate the Amir-i-Ni%am^ but it was discovered and the conspirators were seized and executed. Of greater importance was the outbreak in the same year at Zanjan, a town famous for its goldsmiths' work, to the west of Kazvin. The chief Mulla had embraced the new doctrines, and he and his followers seized the city. Following in the footsteps of the Kharijites, they tortured to death all prisoners and defied a large Persian army, buoyed up with the hope that they would soon possess the entire world. .The siege lasted throughout the summer, but finally their leader, Mulla Mohamed AH, was wounded and died, and their stronghold was captured. Men, women, and children were massacred by the besiegers. 1 While holding the post of Consul at KLerman I had a correspondence with Subh-i- Ezel, whose daughter had claims on some property. He wrote that he renounced all claims; and it was impossible not to sympathize deeply with the unworldly old man, deserted by practically all his followers. 2 In 1903 a terrible persecution arose out of a dispute in the bazaar. Any one who wished to settle accounts with an enemy denounced him as a Babi and was given a document signed by the Mujtahid ordering his death. Awful atrocities were committed.